At what age people retire in different countries
The Russian government has announced a plan to raise the age of disability (the threshold of retirement), which will be implemented in several stages. The reform period is 16 years. Changes in pension legislation are painfully perceived by citizens. The authorities, trying to smooth the way, compare Russia to other states. It is not without curiosities and mistakes.
The peculiarity of the Russian pension system is that it is quite young. Let's try to understand the subtleties, find out what the maximum and minimum retirement age is in the countries of the world. It is no secret that many states are revising the laws in this area.
Features of the pension systems of the world
When a person reaches old age, he or she dreams of spending time in a healthy way, enjoying life and traveling. Unfortunately, the low level of economic development does not allow many people to rely even on funds comparable to the average wage in their country. Let's find out what the retirement age is in different countries and familiarize ourselves with the pension security systems.
The first security of citizens of old age appeared in Europe in the XIX century, but the birth of the funds was only in the XX century. In today's world, there are 3 types of systems of accumulation of funds:
- based on the distribution of the amounts of total taxes collected in the budget (applied to vulnerable people who do not have the opportunity to work);
- based on the distribution of workers' pension contributions (funds from pension contributions are not accumulated, but are paid to those who have already retired);
- Savings (taxes and special charges are deposited in an account, where they remain until the person retires).
Государства стандартно комбинируют свои системы из этих 3 типов. Наиболее уязвимым является метод распределения отчислений от работающего поколения к пожилым гражданам. Мировая практика показала, что с течением времени увеличивается число лиц пенсионного возраста, и даже развитые комбинированные механизмы не могут справиться с назревшими проблемами. Ниже мы расскажем о пенсионном возрасте в разных странах мира на 2023 год.
In developed countries, the payment of pensions is a method to encourage the elderly, to ensure a poverty-free existence, and to motivate young people to work. However, there are territories where systems of accumulation do not work and do not develop. These are the Philippines, Tanzania, and Iraq.
Densely populated countries, India, China, have the problem of low coverage of programs: payments are provided only to a part of the population.
The retirement age in the developed world is increasing for the same reason that it is increasing in Russia:
- the number of elderly persons is increasing;
- life expectancy shows an increase.
This topic is being actively discussed in the governments of Belgium, Great Britain, and Spain, where there are problems with providing for the elderly.
According to the authoritative Global Pension Index rating, the Danish system has been the most balanced for many years. The Netherlands and Australia are also in the top three.
The difference in the retirement age in different countries of the world
The threshold for retirement is determined by the general concept of employability. It should be noted that Russians go to a well-deserved retirement later than residents of many countries in the world. But we should not forget about the concept of a happy old age.
States with developed economies are able to provide the elderly with decent payments, which are sufficient for food, clothing, and even travel. The retirement age in countries with stable economies is high. In Russia, it is the opposite. A low age threshold coexists with low payments, which are barely enough for acceptable food.
An important observation: according to sociologists, the number of working pensioners in our country is almost 10 million people. This figure would have been twice as high if in 2016 they had not canceled the indexation according to price increases. The result - pensioners work unofficially. The reason for moonlighting is the low level of pensions.
The age retained in Russia before the 2018 reform was established in 1932 in the USSR. It has not been changed since then.
Let's compare the retirement age in different countries of the world. Below is a table showing where and how the working age threshold is assessed today.
The lowest and the highest retirement ages: table
|Republic of Albania||69,5||64,5|
|Kingdom of Denmark||69||69|
|Federal Republic of Germany||67||67|
|Kingdom of Norway||67||67|
|Kingdom of Spain||65||65|
|Republic of Armenia||65||63|
|Republic of Kazakhstan||63||58|
|Republic of Uzbekistan||60||55|
Retirement ages in Third World countries (that is, Africa, most of Asia, and Latin America) do not participate in this ranking. Many of these states do note have pension systemsor provide measures of state support only to citizens who have worked in public service in the form of an allowance.
A comparison of the retirement age in other countries of the world clearly shows that Russia boasts one of the lowest thresholds:
- life expectancy;
- the number of elderly people;
- economic opportunities.
Japan, which leads the table in terms of working age, boasts the highest life expectancy in the world. In this country it is possible to retire early, but maximum deductions of 142% of the rate are due from age 70. The last line is occupied by Uzbekistan, where no reforms in this area have taken place.
Похожая ситуация и в странах Западной Европы. Рассмотрим демографическую ситуацию, соотнесем ее с показателями пенсионного возраста в странах мира. Ниже представлена таблица на 2023 год:
|Country||Retirement||Life expectancy||Life expectancy|
|Kingdom of Norway||67||79,9||81,3|
|Kingdom of Denmark||69||78,3||78,3|
|Federal Republic of Germany||67||79,3||80,6|
|Kingdom of Sweden||65||80,9||81,9|
|Republic of Armenia||64,5||72,7||73,7|
|The Republic of Belarus||57,5||70,6||70,7|
|Republic of Kazakhstan||60,5||67,9||67|
|Republic of Uzbekistan||57,5||72||72|
Разобравшись с тем, какой пенсионный возраст в разных странах мира, сравним информацию с российскими показателями на 2023 год.
Before the implementation of the reform, the retirement years in Russia were as follows:
- for women - 55 years old;
- for males - 60 years old.
Life expectancy according to the World Bank was 71.6 years in 2016. When taking mortality rates into account, assess data by region. Leaders for the last 5 years:
- Republic of Ingushetia (in men - 76.5; among women - 83.02);
- metropolitan region (for men - 73; for women - 80.4);
- Republic of Dagestan (among men - 73.2, among women - 79.5).
The worst indicators are recorded in the industrial regions of the country. Life expectancy is estimated at 72.7 years. If we analyze the table of retirement ages in other countries of the world, as well as mortality rates, it turns out that the performance of Russia is not bad. The statistics are spoiled by the low level of payments.
Raising the retirement age in Russia
The retirement age in different countries of the world is calculated on the basis of statistics, specifics of tax collection and the size of the budget.
The law on changes to the Pension Fund system has already been signed by the President, we are waiting for a gradual increase in the age of retirement to 63 (women's figure) and 65 (men's figure). The reform will take place in several steps, beginning in 2020 and ending in 2034.
Even taking these changes into account, the retirement age in other countries of the world is much higher than in Russia. The reform has been ripe since the 1990s, but the government has ignored the problems. The main one is the serious deficit in the Pension Fund budget. It turned out that half of the expenditures for paying contributions to citizens come from the budget. The state compensates the Pension Fund, and the loss is increasing as the number of pensioners is increasing annually.
There are three ways out of this situation:
- the decrease in payments, which could have caused a storm of public indignation;
- an increase in taxes, which are already high in Russia;
- Increasing the retirement age as in other countries of the world.
The last variant of events turned out to be acceptable. To put it bluntly, this measure is forced. We have gone through similar reforms:
- Italy (2012);
- Germany (2012 to 2029);
- UK (2016);
- Israel (2004).
One thing is disconcerting in this situation: the government, in justifying the reform, manipulates concepts. Citizens are presented with explanations about the increase in life expectancy, not the real picture of the lack of budget funds. Even if we compare the indicators of Soviet Russia with today's, the increase in the bar occurred by 1-2 years.
Indicators of the developed world
Let's find out what the retirement age is in countries with developed economies around the world, and how things stand in terms of raising it.
Economic problems also affect the developed countries. Nevertheless, most of them in recent years have raised the issue of the lack of means to provide for the disabled population or have carried out unpopular reforms. Above indicated, what retirement age is currently set in different countries of the world, we will talk about five states with the most successful experience.
Denmark - from the age of 69
This country boasts the highest payments, while men and women leave the workplace late. About 20% elderly citizens of the country continue to work even after retirement. Taxes in Denmark is not less than 35%, this explains the balanced budget. Along with public funds in the market are present and private.
The Netherlands - from 68 years of age
Касаясь темы пенсионного возраста во всех странах мира на 2023 год, расскажем и об опыте Нидерландов. В 2000-х годах здесь начали появляться частные фонды, которые к сегодняшнему моменту завоевали рынок ПФ. Для получения выплат, как и в Дании, гражданину не обязательно иметь голландское гражданство. Достаточно иметь определенный стаж труда на территории страны. Сумма отчислений равняется 50-90% от средней заработной платы.
Norway - from the age of 67
The retirement age for women in countries with developed economies is standardly high. Norway is no exception. Using the principle of equality, they are entitled to a well-deserved retirement at age 67. If a citizen wants to stop working at age 62 (the minimum), she will lose some of her benefits. 28% senior citizens in Norway officially work for this reason.
France - from the age of 62
Citizens of both sexes are eligible to receive state support at age 62. The reform of the system ended in 2017, marking an increase of 2 years in the ability to work.
Italy - from 63-68 years old
Citizens with more than 40 years of service and contributions to a state fund are eligible for the special benefit. The reform is now complete.
USA - from 65-67 years old
Оценивая пенсионный возраст в странах мира по таблице 2023 г., нельзя не отметить, что США в ней занимает выгодную позицию по всем показателям. При среднем возрасте выхода на заслуженный отдых в 67 лет для мужчин, выплаты составляют 1400 долларов и выше. Дополнительно гражданин получает массу социальных гарантий и льгот.
It should be noted that the last reform of the system was carried out 30 years ago, the number of pensioners is only 13% of the population of the country. This figure allows public and private funds to actively accumulate funds.
Having learned what retirement age is set in other countries of the world, and how developed the systems of states are, we can conclude that with a competent approach it is possible to stabilize the Pension Fund budget. The downside is that it will take decades to do so.