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66 most popular myths

Surprisingly, in our progressive times, many people continue to believe in long-defunct famous myths from history and science. To see the pruths, select a category and click on the "icons" on the site.

The bigger the "icon," the more virulent the myth. For example, the "five-second rule" is very common: If a piece of food fell on the floor, but you managed to pick it up faster than five seconds passed, then nothing bad happened. In fact, the number of bacteria that had time to "migrate" to the food depends on how dirty the floor is, and nothing else.

Other popular myths from history, religion, and science

  • Napoleon I Bonaparte was not short at all. The emperor and great commander was about 1.7 m tall, which is considered above average for a European at the time.
  • Satan does not rule hell. This is not mentioned anywhere in the Bible.
  • There is no such thing as a lie detector. Rather, the polygraph itself is quite tangible, but it only shows, roughly speaking, the degree of excitement of the person: changes in heart rate, breathing and other parameters.
  • Bulls don't hate the color red. They do not distinguish between colors in principle, but react aggressively to the flickering red rag in front of their eyes, perceiving it as a threat.
  • There is no banana tree. The banana is actually a giant but grass.
  • Black holes are not holes. These are very dense objects with a great gravitational pull, attracting even light. But it is not a hole in the usual sense of going somewhere.
  • Humans and dinosaurs did not live together. Although 41% adults in the U.S. think our ancestors hunted dinosaurs, that's not true. We're about 63 million years apart.
  • There is no such thing as scientific proof. Proofs are incompatible with science, which by its nature is temporary and constantly being revised. Only mathematics has proofs.
3 years back  

Bouquet of Flowers: Rating of films from different years

Visualizer Shirley Wu presents her own take on the summer blockbuster ratings from 1990 to 2016. Not very easy to read, but insanely beautiful!

What's hidden in the flowers:

  • Petal color denotes the genre (drama, comedy, adventure, action, other).
  • Form - MPAA rating. G: no age restrictions. PG: viewing is recommended in the presence of adults. PG-13: age restriction 13+. R: children under 17 without adults are not allowed.
  • Size flower shows an IMDb (Internet Movie Database) rating on a ten-point scale, where "1" is very bad and "10" is a masterpiece.
  • Configuration flower - the number of votes given for the movie by IMDb users.

For example, "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part II" premiered in July 2011 with a rating of 8.1 (more than 644,000 users voted in total). But the final part of the tetralogy about the adventures of Batman, "Batman and Robin" (June 1997) not only got only 3.7 rating points, but also "grabbed" several nominations "Golden Raspberry.

3 years back  

Reaching for the sky: the 10 tallest buildings in the world

Mankind strives to "reach for the stars". One manifestation of this desire is the appearance of more and more skyscrapers. So if a structure claims to be "the tallest building in the world", then there will be someone who will try to surpass it. Thanks to modern technology and a variety of high-quality building materials allow world architecture to regularly create original projects of unique tall buildings, bringing them to life.

Therefore, every year different countries can boast" not only the appearance of many ordinary buildings, but also hundreds of skyscrapers. So far, the height of the tallest building in the world has not surpassed the mark of one thousand meters, but in the future all is real, as a contender - Burj Al Mamlaka is already under construction. The originality and audacity of many buildings allow them to assign the status of architectural masterpieces. This article will tell you where to find the highest buildings in the world, Top 10 skyscrapers.

The world's tallest buildings

The top ten tallest buildings in the world

The top ten tallest buildings in the world

Let's take a closer look at the list of the world's tallest buildings, these unique creations of human modern civilization. Let's start with the "lowest" building, at the end of the top 10.

10th place: International Commercial Center

Hong Kong has become famous not only for its enviable economic development and standard of living, but also for the number of high-rise buildings erected. Today, there are already 316 structures in the metropolis that have exceeded the 150-meter reference point. But few rival the luxurious building of the International Trade Center.

484 meters - a figure that boggles the imagination. And originally the project was created for a building 90 meters higher! But it had to be adjusted under the current law in China, which prohibits building skyscrapers higher than the mountain peaks in the area. There are 118 floors in total. The lower 100 floors accommodate a variety of offices, stores and shopping centers. And on the top 17 (102-118) is a magnificent five-star hotel with a luxury pool at the top. This is also a kind of record.

International Business Center

The height of the international commercial center is 484 meters

9th place: Shanghai Tower

Just seventeen meters short of the Shanghai Tower to take eighth place among the tallest buildings in the world. As the name suggests, this structure is also located in China. At 492 meters, the architectural object rises into the sky. The amazing shape allows you to call it a "bottle opener". The total number of floors is just over a hundred (101).

Construction began back in 1997, then another crisis followed, and the process froze. Only in 2003 it was possible to continue construction, which was finally completed in 2008. Originally the round top of the building was designed, residents have caught in this connection with the Japanese flag and went on strike.

At that time the designers decided on a trapezoidal shape, and in this case the costs were significantly reduced. The Shanghai Tower in 2008 became the first in the list of the tallest buildings in the world, the size of its observation deck has no rivals on the planet.

Shanghai Tower

The amazing shape allows us to call the tower a "bottle opener".

8th place: Taipei 101

It is the most famous landmark in Taiwan, with a height of 509 meters! The skyscraper was the first in height in 2004-2007, breaking the half-kilometer mark. The name clearly indicates the location and number of floors. The facility was commissioned in 2003, the designers were inspired by traditional Chinese architecture, combining it with the basics of modern postmodernism.

Protected from natural disasters is a huge pendulum - a ball weighing 660 tons, which is located between 87 and 91 floors. It is considered the largest damper on the planet. In addition, the structure is famous for high-speed elevators. Thus, in a minute up visitors fly a distance of 1010 meters, and down - 610. It is noteworthy that elevators here are two-story.

Taipei 101

The skyscraper was the first tallest in 2004-2007

7th place: CTF Financial Center

The seventh place on our list is again deservedly taken by the building from China, located in Guangzhou - the International Finance Center. The height is registered at 530 meters.

The status of "the tallest building under construction in the world" is rightly deserved - 103 floors are already in operation, four of which are basements. Elevators here, as in the previous case, can be classified as superfast - they move up at 72.4 km/h, but they go down much slower (twice as fast). The streamlined structure minimizes the danger from air currents.

CTF Financial Center

Elevators in the CTF Financial Center move upward at 72.4 km/h

6th place: WTC 1 or the Freedom Tower

In New York City, in memory of the World Trade Center terrorist attack on 9/11/2001, there is the Freedom Tower, the embodiment of the American people's courage and their opposition to world calamity. It ranks first among the highest towers of the western half of the world with 541 meters (or 1776 feet), a figure that also symbolizes the year when the country declared independence and signed the Declaration of Independence.

The design of the building took into account the experience of the terrible destruction of previous structures - each of the 104 floors has a place to hide, the location of the elevators is protected by a reinforced tier in the center.

WTC 1 or the Freedom Tower

Each of the 104 floors of WTC 1 has a place to hide

5th place: Lotte World Tower

In 2017, a building was built in Seoul, which closes the top five tallest in the world. This is a real pride for South Korea, because here she has no competitors - none of the architects could not exceed the mark of 554 and a half meters in the country.

The Lotte World Tower has 123 floors, most of which contain a variety of stores, offices, living quarters, and hotel rooms. The top four have platforms that offer stunning views of the city and surroundings. The shape resembles a high cone framed by glass panels - a famous "highlight" of Korean architecture.

Lotte World Tower

Lotte World Tower has 123 floors

4th place: International Financial Center

Pingan, the Asian skyscraper from the city of Shenzhen climbed to number four. The international financial center is called Pingan. 600 meters of beauty and grandeur are amazing. The original plan was to surpass the Shanghai Tower and erect 660 meters, but then there would have been problems with flights.

This building is also considered a newcomer to the list under consideration, as it only appeared on the list in 2017. Exactly 115 floors contain the tall giant.

International Financial Center

The International Financial Center appeared in 2017

3rd place: Abraj al-Beit Towers

The bronze goes to Saudi Arabia, to Mecca, where there is a high-rise decorated with glass mosaics. The architectural masterpiece is called Abraj al-Beit, otherwise known as the Royal Clock Tower.

The top of the skyscraper, topped with an inconceivable tetrahedral clock, reached 601 meters. There are 102 floors. Inside is a chic hotel, often used by pilgrims from all over the world who come to visit the holy places.

Abraj al-Beit Towers

The top of the Abraj al-Beit Tower is topped by a tetrahedral clock

2nd place: Shanghai Tower

The second tallest building in the world 2018 can be seen in Shanghai - Shanghai Tower. The planned 632 meters of Chinese pride was built in the fifteenth year of this century, and contains 128 floors.

Laying of the foundation stone began in 1993. The area of the structure is 380,000 square meters. The spiraling tower consists of 9 local vertical zones. The quality glass and unique construction resist the forces of nature. The Shanghai Tower is the tallest building in the world, a testimony of the unique Chinese architecture.

Shanghai Tower

The laying of the Shanghai Tower began back in 1993

1st place: Burj Khalifa

It's time to find out how many floors the world's tallest building has - 163. The name of the "leader" is Burj Khalifa, and its grandeur extends to 828 meters above ground zero. About nine hundred residential units, three hundred and four hotel rooms, office and shopping complexes, grounds for viewing the neighborhood - this is what the architects have placed in the world champion. Therefore it can safely be classified as the highest partially residential buildings in the world.

Burj Khalifa

The Burj Khalifa stretches 828 meters above ground level

The tallest building under construction in the future

The dominance of the tallest building in the world in Dubai will soon end. It is estimated that in 2020 the construction of the one kilometer tall Burj al Mamlak will be completed! Such a challenge to the architectural world was thrown by the nephew of the king of Saudi Arabia, who carries the title of Prince. Adrian Smith became the chief architect of the tallest building in the world in the future. When the projected 167 floors will be erected, this name will forever remain in world history.

Conclusion

Thus, we learned where the tallest building in the world is, and where a competitor that surpasses all world records will soon appear.

 

3 years back  

The 10 most expensive hotels in the world

Traveling around the world, the rich and famous want to live in the usual luxury and comfort. The VIPs of expensive hotels offer all possibilities for comfortable accommodation. Individual helicopter pad, conference halls, room decorations by world famous designers - all to make their stay pleasant and unforgettable. The daily cost of such apartments is estimated at tens of thousands of dollars.

For those who have not yet reached the heights of wealth and fame, a stay in the presidential suite is an opportunity to raise status, to claim the top line in the ratings of income and popularity. Accommodation in the most expensive room of one of the best hotels in the world adds points to any celebrity. Consider the top ten leaders of the hotel business, while bearing in mind that the most expensive hotel is a rather relative concept. New hotels of class "5+ deluxe" appear regularly, challenging the leaders with the palm of first place and impressing with luxury.

10th place: The Oberoi Sahl Hasheesh 5*, Hurghada, Egypt

A hotel complex consisting of separate villas on the shore of the Red Sea. The expensive bungalows are built in the Arabian style, with individual yards, pools. They create a homelike atmosphere with an oriental flavor.

The Oberoi Sahl Hasheesh is a "5+ Deluxe" class and is one of the most expensive, comfortable and prestigious hotels in Egypt, designed for beach lovers, but one night stay in a double suite costs only about 20,000 rubles.

The Oberoi Sahl Hasheesh 5

The Oberoi Sahl Hasheesh 5

9th place: Park Hyatt-Vendôme, Paris, France

Old Europe tries to attract guests with sophistication, elegance and aristocratism. The chic Park Hyatt Vendôme is located in the center of the great city, close to the Louvre and the Opera, and has a reputation as one of the most expensive and famous hotels in Paris.

Five separate facades were joined into one, giving the hotel complex a complete look. The hotel has an indoor and outdoor courtyard, giving the institution a cozy and truly home-like comfort. It offers 200 deluxe rooms with floor-to-ceiling panoramic windows.

The Presidential Suite has fireplaces, heated floors, separate terraces, and a stone staircase. The area is over 200 square meters. The price of the suite is $15,000 per night.

As you leave the hotel, you immediately get into the heart of Paris - with expensive boutiques, architectural masterpieces and a motley crowd of tourists.

8th place: Shangri-La, Istanbul, Turkey

The most expensive hotel in Turkey - Shangri-La - can compete with the sultan's palace in beauty and luxury of furnishings. Rooms and halls are decorated with paintings by Turkish masters, walls are decorated with silk in oriental style. The windows offer stunning views of the Bosporus.

The Presidential Suite has its own terraces, valet and designer furnishings, priced at $26,000 per night.

Shangri-La, Istanbul, Turkey

Shangri-La, Istanbul

7th place: Burj Al Arab, Dubai, UAE

The famous hotel is built on an artificially created island. The two-story rooms have full-wall windows overlooking the sea. The hotel interiors are decorated in gold, the expensive rooms are equipped with modern amenities of the highest order. Prices range from $1,000 to $15,000 per night.

The restaurants amaze with their excellent cuisine and original decoration. "El Muntaha" soars over the Persian Gulf at a height of 200 meters. "El Mahara" is decorated with an aquarium of more than a million liters.

Royal Suite - Royal Suite - furnished with expensive handmade furniture, has a marble floor and a truly royal luxury. For a night of stay will pay 28 thousand dollars. "Burj el Arab" was built in 1999 - is the most expensive hotel in Dubai.

6th place: Four Seasons, New York, USA

Looking for the most expensive hotel in the world, you inevitably end up in New York City. There are many chic hotel complexes in the city, the Four Seasons being one of the best and most expensive.

There are no more than 11 rooms on the floor, meeting all the requirements of modern comfort. The hotel stands in the center, on Billionaire Street, near Central Park. 24-hour service, concierge, spa center, convenient facilities for guests with children. The skyscraper offers an impressive view of the city.

The penthouse has an area of about 400 square meters, guests are provided with a personal driver, a masseur. The cost - 34 thousand dollars a day.

Four Seasons, New York, USA

Four Seasons, New York

5th place: Grand Resort Lagonissi, Athens, Greece

The resort complex is located on a peninsula in the Aegean Sea, with individual bungalows on the shore. The center of Athens is no more than a half-hour drive away.

There are SPA-procedures, restaurants, which have numerous international awards. For diving enthusiasts - diving club.

The cost of the most luxurious villa - 35,000 dollars a day.

4th place: Laucala Island Resort, Fiji

The perfect place to relax in a quiet, peaceful environment on an exotic island in the Pacific Ocean. The hotel complex is a secluded, expensive villas, scattered in picturesque corners.

"Villa on the Water," Hilltop are individually styled luxury residences that take advantage of the natural features of the landscape, with golf courses and a submarine for observing marine life.

The perfect place for a quiet vacation without the hustle and bustle, the price of the villa is $35,000-40000 per day.

Laucala Island Resort, Fiji

Laucala Island Resort

3rd place: Grand Hyatt Martinez, Cannes, France

The hotel complex is located on the Croisette, in the center of the city. The guests are willing to pay for respectability, good taste and adherence to European traditions.

The chic rooms are decorated in Art Deco style, modern facilities are combined with luxury and meet the most demanding requirements.

The penthouse has several terraces, a roof garden, and an impressive view of the Riviera. The cost of the suite is staggering - about $50,000.

2nd place: Emirates Palace, Abu Dhabi, UAE

"Emirates Palace" - the palace in the Arabian style in Abu Dhabi - is considered one of the most expensive hotels. The palace building is decorated with domes, its length - more than 700 meters. The total area of the hotel complex - 243 thousand square meters.

The hotel has its own beach, two helipads, a park, the concert stage regularly hosts concerts of world celebrities. It offers personal butlers, world brand stores, 10 restaurants. In addition to suites - suites.

A one-week stay at the Emirates Palace at the top of the line will cost a million dollars. Guests will receive full services with jeweled gifts for the ladies, spa treatments, personalized guides and all the modern conveniences.

Emirates Palace, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Emirates Palace, Abu Dhabi

First place: Hotel President Wilson, Geneva, Switzerland

The restrained and refined style is the main advantage of the Swiss hotel. The cost of accommodation starts from 450 euros, which is quite affordable for many Europeans.

The comfort and luxury of the rooms increases with the price. Guests are guaranteed privacy and a high level of security, something Switzerland has always been famous for.

The price of the royal penthouse is more than 65 thousand euros. Whether the services provided are worth the money is up to the guests to decide, but there are always those who want to settle in the apartments.

Hotel President Wilson, Geneva, Switzerland

Hotel President Wilson, Geneva

Top Russian Hotels

Russian 5+ deluxe hotels are quite in line with the level of comfort and luxury accepted in the world. Most of the most expensive and prestigious hotels in Russia are located in both capitals.

 St. Regis, Moscow

The hotel has five stars, occupies a historical building in the center of the capital. The main sights of Moscow - the Bolshoi Theatre, Red Square - are a few minutes' walk away.

It offers 210 rooms, from suites to presidential suites, with prices starting from $600. The most expensive hotel in Moscow offers VIP-persons a suite with a fireplace, library, piano and a room for negotiations, the price for a day - $18,000.

 St. Regis, Moscow

St. Regis Hotel, Moscow

Astoria, St. Petersburg

The northern capital attracts with its European architecture, beauty and unique Russian flavor. The Astoria Hotel is located on St. Isaac's Square, next to the Cathedral, in the former mansion of Prince Lvov. Margaret Thatcher, Herbert Wells and Alain Delon stayed there.

The five-star hotel has 210 suites, rooms for business meetings and a banquet hall.

Rixos, Sochi

The hotel belongs to a famous hotel chain, built near the ski resort in Krasnaya Polyana at an altitude of 960 meters. All rooms are high comfort, decorated in Art Nouveau and Loft style.

Elevators to the ski slopes are 100 meters away from the outlet. Residents can enjoy Turkish baths, spa, swimming pool with hydromassage.

The hotel combines high network standards of service and convenience for lovers of outdoor activities.

Rixos, Sochi

Rixos Hotel, Sochi

Four Seasons, Moscow

The Moscow Hotel in the center of the capital has become a modern five-star Four Seasons hotel with comfortable, expensive suites. The establishment occupies a classic-style building near Red Square.

The apartment has an author's design, the floor in the bathrooms is made of marble, the dining room can accommodate 10 people. The furniture was made to order.

The hotel has five restaurants and bars, sauna and Russian sauna, spa salons.

Ramada, Kazan

The capital of Tatarstan offers accommodation in a chain hotel Ramada. The suites meet the world requirements of comfort and coziness. This is the first establishment of this level in Kazan.

It is located in the historical part of the city. Service meets the high standards typical of Ramada hotels. The design combines chic and functionality. There are business class rooms and suites, the restaurant is open 24 hours a day.

Ramada, Kazan

Hotel Ramada, Kazan

The emergence of world-class hotel chains in Russia forces other hotels to improve service and meet generally accepted quality standards. It gives hope that Russian establishments will be included in the ratings of the best hotels in the world and take a worthy place there.

For inclusion in the top 10 most expensive and prestigious hotels in the world there is a constant invisible battle. Hotels are fighting for customers, offering new services and striking with the luxury of decor, unusual design solutions. Some places rely on the nature and landscape, others - on respectability and discreet aristocratism.

While attracting rich tourists with luxury and royal service of expensive apartments, hoteliers do not forget about improving the quality of service for ordinary guests, make public rooms convenient and comfortable.

3 years back  

The Underground: The World's Deepest Subway

Great Britain is the country where the first branch of the subway was built and launched in the 60's of the XIX century. Since then, this mode of transport has conquered the cities of the world. To relieve the burden of capital cities, megalopolises, people began to build underground tunnels.

Here are the statistics on the depth of the platforms and find out what is the deepest subway in the world and where it is located.

The deepest metro station in the world

Everyone who has gone down to the platforms of the capital and St. Petersburg metro, unwittingly compared the depth of the stops, the length of the escalators. The subway of the northern capital surpasses the Moscow subway in this respect. The decision to build a station as deep as possible is not spontaneous, engineers are forced to do so, taking into account the features of the soil.

Let's find out where the deepest subway station in the world is located.

Where is it

The Kiev subway consists of three branches, construction began in 1938. Today the subway unloads the city, coping with the duties entrusted to it in the Soviet period.

Arsenalna station in Kiev

Arsenalna station in Kiev

Here is also the deepest station, bearing the name - "Arsenal". The Arsenal plant gave it its name, today it is part of the Ukrainian military-industrial complex. Construction was suspended in the 40's, after the end of WWII it continued again. The first train left the platform in November 1960. Since during the construction party required a total economy, it was decided to make "Arsenalnaya" atypical for the Soviet metro. It has an English type design: three halls independent from each other are connected by passages. These same passages are called pylon

The vestibule of the deepest subway station in the world is modestly decorated, as are the halls below.

Features

The main characteristics of "Arsenalna" in Kiev are collected in the table.

Characteristics Indicator
Depth of embedding 105,5 м
The line Svyatoshinsko-Brovarskaya
Location area Pechersky
Platforms Two straight, size 19.7*100 meters
Architects Krushinsky S.I., Granatkin G.I., Shchukina N.M.
Outputs One for Arsenal Square
Working time daily from 05:38 to 00:10

Sculptor Makogon worked on the design of the lobby and lower halls of one of the first stations. Facing is made with pink and white marble. Classic columns, marble benches for passengers - the traditional elements of the time.

Interesting fact: this is the only platform of the Soviet subway, made in the English style. By that we mean the format, in which individual halls are connected by pylons. It is noteworthy that at a depth of 105.5 meters the next station "Dnepr" meets passengers on the very surface of the ground.

In the Moscow subway

A network of underground tunnels was as necessary to the growing Moscow as air in the distant 1900s. Architects proposed projects, but most of them were not developed. The impetus for the construction was the Soviet regime.

Today Moskovsky is considered the most pompous and original subway in the world. All the interiors of the platforms and lobbies have a unique and inimitable design. This is especially true of those that were opened during the Stalin era. The majestic Stalin Empire assumed expensive decoration and splendor of architectural forms.

The Moscow subway is not the deepest subway in Russia. The type of soil allowed stations to be built near the surface. Today, construction continues. Let's talk about how many meters deep the deepest Moscow subway station is laid.

Moscow's subway continues to expand today. Its construction is not finished, as the boundaries of the capital have expanded, and congestion on the roads is commonplace. It is not clear today whether the subway can reduce traffic jams in the future. The Moscow "Victory Park" platform is considered the deepest in the capital. It is located 73 meters from the ground.

"Victory Park" in the Moscow metro

It opened its doors in the spring of 2003, and now passengers can get to Victory Park without transferring to ground transportation. The project engineer - V.A. Schmerling. It should be noted that it was being built for 13 years, the work stopped for various reasons. The opening of the station took place on the eve of Victory Day.

The deepest metro station in Moscow is equipped with cross-platforms of two lines:

  • Solntsevskaya (yellow);
  • Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya (blue).

To transfer from the blue line to the yellow line, just go to the second platform, you do not need to cross the long aisles.

Sculptor Tsereteli took part in the decoration of Victory Park. He created panels dedicated to the victories of the two domestic wars:

  • over the French Empire;
  • over Hitler's Germany.

Gray, black marble and granite were used to decorate the walls and floor. It should be noted that the fourth deepest metro station in the world is "Park Pobedy" in Moscow.

In the St. Petersburg metro

The subway in Leningrad was laid before the war, although the first projects were presented in pre-revolutionary times. It is noted that Nicholas II was presented several elevated designs, which he rejected. According to scientists, this type of transport could not work long because of the features of the soil and weather conditions. For the construction of deep stations there was no money.

The deepest metro station in St. Petersburg is laid 86 meters from the ground. It is called "Admiralteyskaya". It was built in the 90s of last century, but the official opening was held 13 years later. Postponed due to the settlement of the house in Kirpichny Lane, where today the lobby is located, with restructuring and legal complexities.

Admiralteyskaya Station, St. Petersburg

Admiralteyskaya Station, St. Petersburg

Admiralteyskaya station is a classic Soviet design of a three-vaulted section with columns. It belongs to the Frunzensko-Primorskaya line and in summer is open for travel at night when the bridges of St. Petersburg are open. It is often used by tourists, being the nearest to the popular attractions of the northern capital:

  • Senate Square;
  • St. Isaac's Cathedral;
  • Palace Square.

The decoration is devoted to the formation of the Russian fleet, used mosaics, stained glass. On the walls between the columns passengers see portraits of the great Russian fleet admirals. The decoration abounds with a lot of granite, marble, polished brass. This is not only the deepest metro stop, but also one of the most beautiful.

Top deepest stations in the world

To summarize, let's talk about the five deep-laid stations.

  1. The first line is the above described "Arsenalna" in Kiev. The depth is 105.5 meters.
  2. The second deepest station (about 100 meters) is Puheung, located in Pyongyang, DPRK. The North Korean subway was laid as deep as possible for fear of nuclear attack. The exterior is decorated with marble panels depicting Communist leaders. It ranks among the top 15 most beautiful platforms in the world.
  3. The third deepest station is Admiralteyskaya in St. Petersburg, described in detail above.
  4. The fourth line belongs to "Victory Park" in the Russian capital's subway. The construction took 14 years, but the result exceeded expectations. Today it is the deepest stop of the Moscow subway.
  5. At the end of the five deepest platforms Washington, Oregon (USA) is 79 meters underground. It has access to the park of the same name. It is noteworthy that the transportation system uses streetcars moving on four lines. It was opened in 1998.

The subway is a modern type of transport. Engineers are working on new creations, trying to make them safe, comfortable, concise in design terms. No one will compete for the title of the deepest platform.

3 years back  

A rare bird can fly: the world's widest rivers

Ecologists, limnologists, hydrologists, potamologists study the structure, condition, biological and chemical composition of water bodies, watercourses of the planet. If we talk about water arteries, the most full-flowing, deep, long rivers in the world are identified. They are famous for flora, fauna, importance for humans.

Let's talk about the widest river in Russia and in the world, and find out if the channels are suitable for river navigation.

How are rivers divided by width?

The channel of a waterway is formed by the movement of water. The process lasts for centuries, the area of the passage often changes due to natural or environmental reasons. When talking about the width, we mean the maximum distance between two points of different banks, including island areas. The maximum indicator is taken as the basis. The nature of the current and the water regime are important.

Rivers are divided into three types by width:

  1. narrow (flowing mainly in mountainous areas);
  2. average;
  3. wide.

The latter include blue highways over 150 meters wide. There are waterways in the world, standing on one bank of which, the second bank is difficult to discern even with binoculars. Let's start with the Russian ones.

Russia's widest rivers

The Russian Federation is famous for its rich nature. All over the world know the names of Russian reservoirs: Baikal, Volga, Yenisei. Let's tell you which river in Russia is the widest.

Ob - 60 km

It is formed at the confluence of the Altai arteries Katun and Biya. It flows along the West Siberian plain to the north for 3,650 km. One of the widest rivers in Siberia. The widest place is the mouth of the Ob Bay, where the artery flows into the Kara Sea. It is calculated to the places where Nadym and Nyda flow into the Bay. Together with its tributary Irtysh it forms the longest waterway in the country.

Ob

Ob during floods

In the bay steep waves of irregular shape are formed, it is difficult to approach the shore of the bay from the sea, there is a maritime navigation regime. The waters are rich in fish: sturgeon, sterlet, vendace, whitefish and others. The shores in this place are monotonous, devoid of forests, marshy. The size of the Ob basin is 2990 thousand square km.

Riverboats move along the Ob in all sections, carrying cargo and passengers. The depth varies from 110 to 300 cm (relevant to Salekhard and Khanty-Mansiysk districts).

Amur - 40-50 km

The water border between Russia and China, the Amur, is one of the widest in the country. It ranks first in the country by the number and diversity of ichthyofauna: 139 subspecies of fish are found in the waters of the Amur. It floods in August and September.

Amur

View of the Amur embankment in Khabarovsk

The river is navigable from source to mouth, with the narrowest point being limited to 300 meters. Notably, the Zeya, a tributary of the Amur, is wider than the main waterway at its confluence. The upper and middle parts of the river are the border zone between China and Russia. The Russian side of the Amur needs strengthening, as floods are becoming threatening.

Lena - 20-30 km

The largest river in central Siberia, it is 4,400 kilometers long. For most of its journey from a nameless swamp to the Laptev Sea, the Lena is surrounded by coniferous forests, highlands, and meadows. Already in its middle course, the channel widens to 20 kilometers. Its source is in the southern Irkutsk region. On the right side of Baikal is the source of the Vitimcan, another major northern river, to which the Lena is connected via the waters of Vitim.

Lena

The mighty Lena River

Lena is known for being located entirely in the permafrost area. In the upper reaches, where there are no islands and the channel is single, the widest place is three kilometers, in places where islands cluster, the waterway spills to thirty. It freezes in reverse order.

Volga - 15-20 km

When you first find yourself on the Volga, you are struck by its beauty. It is the longest and widest river in Europe. The widest location is in neighboring Kazakhstan. The delta has 500 arms. The river's waterway provides fresh water to the Mangistau region of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Volga

View of the Volga

The riverbed of the Volga expands after the Kama River flows into it. The character of the flow changes. During the Soviet years, dams, reservoirs, and hydroelectric power plants were built here: the Volga, Saratov, and Zhigulevskaya.

From the city of Rzhev to the mouth of the river is developed shipping and fishing. Today the waterway is one of the symbols of Russia.

Kama - 15 km

Kama is fed by melted snow and ice, has a narrow channel in the upper reaches, in the lower reaches is wide, up to 15 kilometers. It flows into the Kuibyshev reservoir, but two more reservoirs were created on the river. This improved conditions for the passage of ships.

Kama

Bridge across the Kama River near the village of Sorochi Gory

The disappearing taimen, reaching a length of 2 meters and weighing 80 kilograms, is once again found in the Kama.

The widest river in the world

Russia's waterways are not the widest in the world. Let's talk about world record holders.

The Amazon has broken three records simultaneously: the largest, full-flowing, and having the largest delta. The Amazon is recognized as a natural wonder of the world. In the middle reaches of the Amazon, the water artery is flooded, the width of the delta is 17-20 kilometers.

Amazon

The Amazon is the most amazing river on the planet

The Ganges delta is much wider than the Amazon delta, but it is formed by merging with the Brahmaputra (300 km wide). Here is the Sundarban mangrove forest, famous for its size and beauty. Living in the delta of the Indian river is dangerous: floods and cyclones occur in the area.

It's time to find out which river is the widest river in the world. The artery runs through Argentina and Uruguay. The indigenous peoples called this place the "river plate" or River Plate. The modern name is the Rio de la Plata.

Represents an estuary at the confluence of the Atlantic Ocean:

  • Uruguay;
  • Parana.

Europeans first discovered estuaries in the 16th century, attempting to find a waterway from the Atlantic to the Pacific. An estuary is an estuary that extends into the marine zone. Coastal areas are flooded during floods.

Rio de La Plata

View of Buenos Aires and Rio de la Plata from an airplane

La Plata is 48 kilometers wide at its narrowest and 320 kilometers wide at its widest. The city of Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina, is situated on the left bank of the confluence of rivers. The area of the basin is 3.2 million km2In the waters there is a rare river dolphin, named after the name of the estuary, the turtle.

The width of water arteries is not of serious importance to geographers, naturalists, ecologists. Much more important is the human attitude towards water bodies. Going on vacation, fishing, do not forget to clean up litter.

3 years back  

Man's friend: rating of the most expensive dogs in the world

A dog is first and foremost a friend of man. They are great guards, hunters, and companions that can brighten up the lives of lonely people and entire families. A pet brings a lot of positive things into the life of the owner, especially if the owner raises it from an early age.

Before getting a dog, many people think about whether to give preference to a dog without documents or to choose a purebred. The latter are expensive, the choice should be taken seriously, considering the character, the rules of maintenance. We suggest you read the rating of the most expensive dogs in the world and find out what the prices of pets today.

Why are some dog breeds more expensive than others?

The most expensive dogs fall into the hands of wealthy owners, where they are properly fed, buy them clothes and even take them to the beauty salon for haircuts. You can notice that among celebrities there is a fashion for a particular dog.

The cost of a four-legged friend is determined based on a number of attributes:

  • purity, the rarity of the breed;
  • Availability and number of titles, awards;
  • the appearance of the dog;
  • dog's health.

Prices on the market fluctuate, so it is difficult to determine which breed is considered the most expensive. The cost may be inflated in countries where it is considered rare. Nevertheless, all of the dogs in the rating are inherently popular.

Rating of expensive dogs

Top 10 most expensive dogs in the world according to the American edition

Top 15 most expensive dog breeds in the world

Before we talk about what breed of dog is the most expensive, let us note that the evaluation is awarded not only one type of animal, but the exclusivity of a particular dog. He can have an excellent pedigree, exterior - qualities that will increase its value.

The price of the most expensive dogs in the world is listed in U.S. dollars. So, breeders have learned to make money on loyalty and friendship. On the one hand, it is sad, on the other hand, it allows you to care about the purity of dog breeds.

Bullmastiff (15th place)

Bullmastiff

Young Bullmastiff

At the very end of our ranking is the faithful watchdog, the Bullmastiff. was first bred in the 19th century in England and is considered one of the youngest. Representatives have a large build, a broad chest, a large head. They look intimidating, although not prone to aggression without reason.

The main purpose of the dog: protection of forests from hunters and poachers. The representatives of the bullmastiff were engaged in catching trespassers in England for decades; they did not bite the person they found, but knocked him down, calling the owner for help. Bullmastiffs have not barked in vain since then.

The price for a puppy starts at $300 and goes up to $1,000.

Chinese Crested (14th place)

Chinese Crested

Chinese Crested Pose for Photographer Sophie Gamand

Bred in China, today it is considered one of the most expensive dogs. It looks very cute, strongly attached to the owner.

Refers to the class of companions, the growth does not exceed 30-33 centimeters. The body of the animal is covered with sparse hair or even bare. In the middle of last century, the breed almost disappeared, but in Great Britain it began to be engaged. The cost is due to rarity and exotic appearance. The lowest price for a puppy - $ 400. If the seller understates the price, then there is a marriage.

Sharpay (13th place)

Sharpay

Sharpies are dogs with a balanced disposition

Another expensive dog hails from the Celestial Empire and is difficult to confuse with the others because it has two consistent characteristics:

  • skin with deep creases;
  • the tongue has a black and blue hue.

This is a sturdy, short (up to half a meter) animal. Like the bullmastiff, it belongs to the molosser section. Originally intended for hunting and guarding grazing livestock, it was bred by peasants. There are theories of a fighting origin of the dog.

The Communist regime of Mao Zedong almost completely exterminated dogs in the country during his rule. In the 70's, the Sharpei was named the rarest breed in the world. The character of the dogs is calm, they are loyal to their owners, they are trainable. It is recommended that they be raised in the company of other four-legged dogs from childhood, otherwise the Sharpei will be aggressive against other breeds.

The cost starts at $ 400.

Akita Inu (12th place)

Akita Inu

Akita inu playing in the snow

The name comes from the Japanese province of the same name, where the dogs traditionally lived. The main purpose is to hunt big game:

  • deer;
  • bears;
  • boars.

Today this is a thing of the past, and the Akita-inu is considered the dearest friend, a companion dog. They get along both on the street and in city apartments. Large, tall, male dogs reach 67-70 centimeters at the withers.

At the end of World War II, four more breeds were bred based on the purebred Japanese. One of them is the American Akita. All of them are used as family dogs, not intended for hunting. Akita-inu and Husky are free-living representatives. They do not guard territory.

The most famous dog of this breed is a dog named Hachiko. He conquered the world by his loyalty to his master, this story was the basis of the American movie of the same name. Love and loyalty are expensive qualities. Those who want to buy a small Akita-inu should collect at least 450 c.u.

Pharaoh's dog (11th place)

Pharaoh dog

The graceful Pharaoh's dog

Perhaps the rarest breed on the territory of the CIS. Refers to the primitive, was previously distributed only on the island of Malta.

The muzzle of the dog is elongated, wedge-shaped, the body is long on high paws, reminiscent of greyhound types. Originally used as a hunting dog, even today is aggressive towards beasts and birds. Good to train, quickly remembers commands, can not be used as a guard.

Pharaoh dog - the perfect friend of the hunter, it has excellent vision, a keen sense of smell, not lost in the process of evolution instincts. The cost - from 50000 rubles.

Jack Russell Terrier (10th place)

Jack Russell Terrier

Very active dog

A true hunter, an active and fun friend. The dog of this breed can be used as a hunting dog if an animal needs to be retrieved from a burrow or a bird from the water. It is known as a companion, a dear friend, a watchman in the house and apartment.

Outwardly small with smooth or stiff coat, color white with yellow or black spots. The price of a good specimen - 50000 rubles and above.

Rottweiler (9th place)

Rottweiler

Rottweilers require special attention from the owner

Despite their prevalence, Rottweilers consistently rank among the most expensive four-legged animals. Bred in Germany as a ferryman and guardian of livestock.

The Rottweiler is of medium height, but the build is strong and the appearance is intimidating. Often they are breed for protection. As a loyal dog, the Rottweiler will always protect the owner. Aggression is inherent in those who from childhood are kept under lock and key, preventing socialization.

Speaking of the character of a Rottweiler, I want to quote a German proverb: "When you train a German shepherd you do nothing, but when you train a Rottweiler you do a lot. A purebred puppy is priced at 800-1000 USD on the market.

Chongqing (8th place)

Chongqing

Favorite dog of Chinese families

One of the rarest representatives of these animals of Chinese origin. It owes its name to the city of the same name in China. Today it is used as a guard, previously helped people hunt large and medium animals. The history of Chongqing began more than 20 centuries ago.

Infinitely devoted to the owner, active, fearless. Closed country led to the fact that the appearance of the dog has not changed over the years. Lifespan - 15-20 years, which is a record. In our country are not found very often, so the puppy is estimated at 1500 dollars and above.

Norfolk Terrier (7th place)

Norfolk Terrier

Norfolk never refuse a walk

Representatives of the Norfolk Terriers are small dogs, height not exceeding 25 centimeters. They are active, loyal to the family who raised them. Keeping them in an apartment is allowed if the terrier will walk outdoors for at least an hour daily, and once a week - 2 hours.

Can guard the house, love children. Norfolk is a dear and beloved friend of large families. It is considered a rare breed, so the cost of a puppy reaches 2000 c.u.

King Charles Spaniel (6th place)

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

The pocket dog that girls love to have

When the name is pronounced correctly, the word "Cavalier" is substituted in front. This species of spaniel is very small, used by wealthy families as a family friend, a favorite dog of young ladies, although it has the ability to hunt fowl.

There is an Asian component in the basis of origin. Small breeds were brought to Europe from the East, understanding how expensive they can be sold. Decorativeness is perfectly complemented by affection and absence of aggression. The average price of a decorative specimen with documents is 1500-2000 euros.

Yorkshire Terrier (5th place)

Yorkshire Terrier

Yorkies are cheerful and active

Another representative of England, ornamental, active and cheerful. Currently the breed is at the peak of popularity. Behavioral features: inherent curiosity, courage terriers.

It is convenient for residents of small apartments. Requires careful care: daily brushing, clipping, in winter - changes of clothes before going for a walk. If the yorkie participates in exhibitions, wool grows, oiled, used special curlers.

He is not used as a guard, because he is not aggressive. He has a good-natured character. Price - $2,000 and above.

English Bulldog (4th place)

English Bulldog

The Bulldog is the symbol of England

It appeared in England for bull riding (it used to be a popular sport). Today it is considered a relative of the mastiff. Despite its origin, the bulldog is balanced and calm.

In Britain, it is believed that breeders are lazy, because the dog does not like to walk, slow, tied to his corner. Care is not difficult. The dog is a symbol of the British nation, so it is dear to each of its representatives. You can buy a puppy for $2500.

Argentine dog (3rd place)

Argentine Dog

Strong, hardy dog

It is the only officially recognized representative in the world of Argentina among four-legged animals. It was created at the beginning of the century on the basis of ten large breeds, the main type of use - hunting on the beast.

Tall (60-68 centimeters), sturdy dog of white color, easily trained. Puppies are expensive ($3000-10000), because they are rare, until the 70's were not known in Europe.

Samoyed husky (2nd place)

Samoyed husky

Russian sled dog

A rare representative of northern medium-sized dogs with snow-white fluffy fur. Its homeland is Russia, the type is "Northern Sleddogs." Samoyeds are the oldest breed in the country.

The muzzle is cute, it seems that the dog smiles. By nature stubborn, but friendly, affectionate. In Russia the cost - 30000 rubles, in Europe - 5000 euros. Poorly tolerates the heat, it is not recommended to bring in hot countries.

Tibetan Mastiff (1st place) - the most expensive dog in the world

Tibetan Mastiff

Tibetan Mastiff

The Tibetan Mastiff is the most expensive dog breed in the world, the price of some representatives of which exceeded one million dollars. It belongs to the category of ancient dogs. It is associated with legends and myths, which affects the final cost.

Not related to the ancient breeds of sheepdogs, similar to the German Dane, used as a guard and cattle ferry. Able to guard the house, be a dear and loyal friend, watch over children. Let's find out how much the most expensive dog in the world costs. The average price in Russia is 150,000 rubles. Exemplars with a unique color sold for hundreds of thousands of dollars.

The most expensive dog in Russia

Our country does not collect statistics on prices in the kennel market. Occasionally the media gets information about puppies sold at a high price. According to the analysis of the data, rare specimens bred abroad are valued in Russia.

The first in the top klie-kai from Alaska. Having appeared on the market not so long ago, he managed to become fashionable. The cost exceeds 300 thousand Russian rubles. Foreign dogs are used for mating, which makes them expensive.

Alaskan Kli Kai

The Alaskan Kliekai is very similar to the Huskies

Externally, the kli kai is a relative of the Husky, Russian winter is ideal for him. kept in homes and apartments. peculiarity: clean, do not emit the smell of a dog.

When buying an expensive dog, remember: loyalty, love, and not the money paid for him. Not surprisingly, among mongrels there are intelligent and loving, real guards. The most expensive dog is a loyal dog.

3 years back  

Across the river: the world's largest bridges

People learned how to build bridges in ancient times. The main purpose of engineering structures is the ability to cross water obstacles: swamps, lakes, straits, rivers. The prototype of the bridge in ancient times - a trunk of a tree, which was thrown from one bank to the other to get across.

Modern bridges are strong, reliable and beautiful, although over time the latter quality becomes an exception. Let's look at the record structures of this type and find out what their size is.

Top 5 largest bridges in the world by height

All bridges in the world are divided into several categories depending on their capacity and purpose. In addition to the known railroad, pedestrian, vehicular and combined bridges there are:

  • viaducts (bridges over roads);
  • aqueducts (to carry water from one point to another);
  • viaducts (to move through gorges).

Consider the world's largest bridges in height, their photos and purpose.

Dughe across the Siduhe River

The world's tallest bridge was opened in 2016 in China and was astonished not only by its size, but also by its technical component. The first carrying cables were thrown over the gorge using rockets. It should be noted that the structure is located in a mountainous area, the workers have laid a tunnel through the rock.

Bridge in China

The Duguet Bridge is now the tallest in the world

The roadway is 1.222 kilometers long and 496 meters high and is part of the highway connecting Chongqing and Shanghai.

Car Bridge Bullets

Completed in 2015, the structure crosses the river and canyon of the same name in China. The hanging structure has 4 lanes of traffic. The height of the lane above the cliff is 485 meters. Each tower pylon rises 154 meters above the cliff.

Bridge of Bullets

China surpasses all countries in the world in the number of bridges built annually

Millau Viaduct

The third tallest bridge structure in the world is located on the Tarn River in the south of France. Today the viaduct is passed by all travelers on their way from Basieux to Paris via Clermont-Ferrand. Built in 2004, the architectural design was developed by the British company "Foster & Partners".

Millau Viaduct

The view from here is gorgeous

The bridge is named so because of its proximity to the town of Millau. 343 meters high, it is a structure with eight spans supported by seven columns of steel and concrete. The French viaduct is a cable-stayed bridge, the roadway is held on steel cables. The traffic on the highway is two lanes in each direction. Length of the web - 2.46 kilometers, weight - 36000 tons, it seems to float in the clouds.

Russian Bridge

The cable-stayed structure located in Vladivostok, connecting Russky Island and Nazimov Peninsula. Construction began 4 years before the APEC summit and was timed to coincide with the event.

bridge to Russky Island

Night illumination of the Russian Bridge

Important! The bridge is unique in its technical characteristics and important for the development of eastern Russia. Today its image can be seen on the new bill of 2000 rubles.

The height of the pylons is 324 meters, the length of the roadway is 1885.5 meters. The structure is brightly illuminated at night, the lighting work was performed by MT Electro. The record length of the span is 1.104 km.

Sutong via the Yangtze

The Chinese Bridge over the Yangtze Delta is one of the largest cable-stayed structures in the world. It is second only to the Russian Bridge in Vladivostok in terms of span length (1.088 km). It is located in Suzhou city district.

China

One of the largest bridges in the world - Sutun

It has 7 spans connected by pylons, the height of each of them is 306 m. In 2008, the official opening took place.

Top 5 bridges by length

The length of the bridge bed also matters. Nowadays in the world it is possible to build an architectural giant not only across a river, but also across a strait, if the structure of the seabed allows it. Examples of such structures:

  • The Crimean bridge across the Kerch Strait, rail and road length of 19 kilometers allows ships to pass from the Black Sea to the Azov Sea and back (the rail part will be opened in 2019).
  • The 35.67-kilometer-long Hangzhouwan Bay Bridge in China is the longest trans-oceanic architectural project, which shortened the route from Shanghai to Ningbo by 160 kilometers.
Shanghai

The largest trans-oceanic bridge

But there are structures in the world that exceed those listed above in length.

Danyang Kunshan viaduct

This structure is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest bridge of its length in China and in the world. The total length is 164.8 kilometers. The construction took less than three years, which was also a kind of record.

Bridge in China

View of Danyang Kunshan viaduct from the shore

The viaduct is designed for high-speed train traffic. The route connects the cities of Nanjing and Shanghai. The estimated cost of construction was about 10 billion dollars. The longest bridge in the world crosses several reservoirs, ravines, road routes.

Zhanhua-Gaohsiung

It is part of the Taiwan railway line, which is used by high-speed trains every day. It is the second longest in the world - 157.3 kilometers. Officially opened in 2007, 5 years later it was used by more than 200 million passengers annually.

Taiwan

The Taiwan viaduct is unremarkable, but it is earthquake-proof and reliable

The island of Taiwan is located in an earthquake-prone zone, so the viaduct is designed so that in case of strong earthquakes the train can stop and wait for further instructions.

Tianjin viaduct

Railroad bridge on the way from Beijing to Shanghai. It meets modern safety requirements, as this section is used by a high-speed train traveling at over 300 kilometers per hour. Opened in 2010, its length is 114 m.

bridge

Tianjin viaduct

Changdei viaduct

The high-speed railroad from Beijing to Shanghai required complex projects. One of them is the 105.8-kilometer Changdei Crossing. The design takes into account the seismic hazard in the region. The viaduct can withstand vibrations of up to 9 points.

Chinese Bridge

Changde is one of the most reliable bridges in the world

Akashi Kaikyo

Japan is an island nation, where they know how to build not only strong, but also beautiful crossings. One of them crosses the Akashi Strait between the islands of Honshu and Awaji. It was built in 1998. Akashi Kaikyo is a suspension bridge, for its construction used different technology than the cable-stayed bridge described above.

longest bridge

Akashi is a suspension bridge, its design was revised during construction due to displacement of supports during an earthquake

The Akashi Strait is a difficult area where storms often raged. The construction solved the problem of moving the population by car. Between the two pylons were stretched cables, to which the roadway was attached. Notably, during construction, it suffered a major earthquake.

The biggest bridges in Russia

The vast territory of Russia is in dire need of bridge constructions. This is especially true for the regions of Siberia and the Far East, where people sometimes have to wait for winter to cross the ice to the other side. Bridge construction is a technically complex and costly task. Let's look at the projects that have been implemented beyond those in the top 10. These bridges are considered the largest in the country.

Presidential (Ulyanovsk)

For the first time the project of the bridge crossing over the Volga was presented during the Soviet Union, in 1986 construction began. During difficult times for the state it was stopped and then resumed. The Presidential bridge was put into operation in autumn 2009.

Bridge Ulyanovsk

Ulyanovsk is proud of its modern bridge over the Volga

Length - 5825, width - 25 meters. It consists of 24 spans and two tiers. The lower was laid for streetcar traffic, but at present the project is not implemented. As the foundation here for the first time were used bored piles.

Low-water through the Amur Bay (Vladivostok)

It has a total length of 4,364 meters and connects Muravyov-Amursky and De-Friz peninsulas. Cars are allowed to drive up to 90 km/h in 4 lanes. The structure was opened in 2012 and was timed for the APEC summit, which took place in Vladivostok.

Amur Bay

Thanks to the APEC summit two modern bridges were built in Vladivostok

It was built at the same time as the Russian Bridge, has 80 spans.

Zheleznodorozhny via Yuribey (YNAO)

In 2009 a unique bridge over the Yuribey River beyond the Arctic Circle was opened. This unique construction has no analogues in the world. The construction took into account the fact that after the snow melts the river overflows. The length of the bridge was 3,893 meters.

Transsib

Bridge over Yuribey in winter

Standing on tall piles, no backfill method was used in the process, which helped preserve the river ecosystem. Notably, a heavier structure was approved on paper, which had to be lightened to adapt to the risks of the bearing capacity of the ground.

Khabarovsk (Khabarovsk)

A two-tiered complex structure with a rich history. It was opened in 1916. Parts of the "Amur miracle," as it is popularly called, were delivered from Europe via Odessa and Vladivostok. The launch of the traffic completed the construction phase of the Trans-Siberian Railway.

Khabarovsk

The Khabarovsk bridge is one of the oldest in Russia, it has been completely reconstructed

In the 90's there was a reconstruction, which allowed to use the "Amur miracle" again. It is a combined crossing, which is used by cars and trains, 3,890.5 meters long.

Bolshoi Obukhovsky (St. Petersburg)

We used to think that all bridges in St. Petersburg are drawbridges. This is not true. Obukhovsky - the longest crossing over the Neva, which does not draw. Cable beam structure has a length of 2884 meters (main span - 382 m). It connects the October embankment with the avenue Obukhovskoy Defense.

Peter

St. Petersburg's First Undivided Bridge

The Bolshoi Obukhovsky is a modern structure, reminiscent of the Russian in Vladivostok. At night it is beautifully illuminated.

Moscow's Largest Bridges

Moscow's rivers and canals are the capital's jewel. Dozens of bridges, viaducts and overpasses cross them. All of them are not giants, but they deserve attention.

Luzhnetsky Underground Bridge

An arched double-deck subway bridge crosses the Moskva River and connects two important parts of the capital: Luzhniki and Vorobyovy Gory. Opened in 2002 to replace an old one that had fallen into disrepair.

Moscow

Vorobyovy Gory Station on the Luzhnetsky Bridge

The main span is 108, the total length is 2030 meters. In the lower tier of the bridge is the station "Vorobyovy Gory", unique in that it is above water.

Pictorial

Combined cable-stayed bridge of pedestrian and vehicular type, the most recognizable in the capital. It crosses the Moskva River, is considered the highest in Europe. The total length of the roadway is 1460, the main span is 410 meters.

Picturesque Bridge

One of the most recognizable bridges in the capital

The building is 105 m high and has a hinged arch, the elements of which are attached to each other rather than to the supports. It has an observation deck.

Dorogomilovsky

The 790-meter-long double-arch road type of structure is included in the Third Ring Road. The Smolensk Railroad Bridge used to be in its place. It was built in 1999.

Moscow River

View of the Dorogomilovsky Bridge

The upper tier is a road of 8 lanes, actively used at present. The lower tier was designed for a high-speed road between Vnukovo and Sheremetyevo airports, not opened.

Europe's largest bridges

Europe can boast of large viaduct, bridge-type projects. If you consider that the border between Asia and Europe is commonly divided differently here than in our country, it turns out that Russian river and strait crossings are not accounted for.

Vasco da Gama (Lisbon)

A Portuguese structure across the largest river in the Iberian Peninsula, the Tagus. The cable-stayed structure here turns into a viaduct, the total length of the structure is 12.3 kilometers.

Lisbon

The grand Portuguese project - the Vasco da Gama Bridge

The inauguration took place in 1998 and was timed to coincide with the exhibition in Lisbon "Expo-98". The traffic is carried out on 6 lanes, the width of the main span - 420 meters.

European (Switzerland)

Europe's longest pedestrian bridge opened in the Swiss Alps in 2017. The suspension structure connects the villages of Graechen and Zermatt over the Grabengofer Pass.

Switzerland

The largest pedestrian bridge in the world

The height above the ground - 80 m, those who want to cross to the other side must overcome 494 meters. The view from here is beautiful.

The biggest drawbridges

For the passage of ships in the port built diluter structures. They are unique, graceful. The process of dilution come to watch the tourists from all over the world.

Dvortsovy (St. Petersburg)

It was opened in 1916, taking its name from the nearby Winter Palace. During the establishment of Soviet power in the country was called the Republican Palace.

Bridges of St. Petersburg

The Palace Bridge is featured on most St. Petersburg postcards

The length is 250 meters, previously at this place was erected a wooden float, which had the name of St. Isaac's.

Tower (London)

London's landmark built in 1894, allows for a quick crossing of the Thames. The graceful construction is made in the form of two towers with a central span rising at an angle of 83°. The length from one bank to the other is 244 m.

Tower

The most recognizable bridge in the world

After the flaps are opened, pedestrians can continue walking.

Slauerhoff (Leeuwarden)

A unique construction built in 2000 in the Netherlands. It is named after a famous Dutch poet and looks like a catapult. The metal square platform opens and lets the ships through as they approach.

Holland

The most unusual drawbridge in the world

Conclusions

  1. The largest bridge by height is located in China on the Siduhe River, by length it is also in China, but connects the cities of Nanjing and Shanghai, it is designed for train traffic (Danyang Kunshan viaduct).
  2. Russia's largest bridges are the Krymsky, Russian and Presidential, all of which are modern structures.
  3. The longest bridge in Europe is located in Lisbon and is named after Vasco da Gama.
  4. The largest bascule bridge in the world is the Palace Bridge.
4 years back  

Catching Luck by the Tail: the biggest lottery winnings in Russia and the world

Who doesn't dream of winning an apartment or a car in the lottery? It's an easy and quick way to suddenly change their lives, so people are increasingly buying tickets and waiting for their luck. However, only a few are lucky, and they become known throughout the country.

Let's talk about the world's biggest lottery win, find out what country it happened in, and how the life of the lucky man changed.

All over the world.

Gambling has always been attractive. Lotteries involve random selection of a number or numbers, another important "plus" is the low cost of tickets. The first lotteries originated in ancient times, later they were actively used by private individuals and political parties.

After World War II in Europe, the number of lottery games is increasing, the prizes reach huge amounts. Let's tell you how much you can win the maximum.

Powerball ($1.5 billion for three)

The lottery business in the U.S. is allowed in 44 states, where you can issue and sell tickets. It is noteworthy that the Powerball jackpot is always a large amount of several million dollars.

Luck

Powerball lottery ticket

The person who bought the ticket must select 5 white balls with numbers from 1 to 69 and 1 red ball with numbers from 1 to 26. When all 6 positions match, the jackpot is drawn. It grows starting at 40 million and increases until it is drawn. For other matches, the person can get a prize of $4 to $1 million for a ticket price of $2. If there are several guessers, the winnings are divided equally among them.

So it happened in January 2016. The jackpot had grown to 1.5 billion by that time, which was an absolute record for the amount. And on that day, three people in the U.S. who guessed the combination of numbers were simultaneously lucky. Until then, the maximum was winning 590500000 dollars in Powerball. This drawing is also held in other countries.

Megamillions Lottery ($640 million per person)

In the U.S. for more than 50 years such events and gambling were banned, but today this country accounts for both the largest jackpot and the largest prize that one person managed to get.

chance

Lottery advertising poster

Founded in 2002, the Megamillions lottery quickly gained popularity with a record prize of $640 million. Remarkably, it is the largest win in the world for a single person. The event took place in March 2012 and became a sensation. Since then, the world record has not been broken.

In the U.S., a citizen has the right to choose:

  1. receive the amount in installments by non-cash method;
  2. get a smaller amount, but in cash.

As a rule, the lucky ones prefer the second way.

In Russia

People in Russia love lottery draws just as much as Americans. They are divided into two types:

  • Circulation;
  • non-competitive.

The largest sums are drawn in circulation versions, when the drawing is carried out after the sales phase is over. According to the law, they are all supervised by the state. The creation of such a business by private individuals is prohibited, because they will not be able to provide guarantees.

Let's find out what was the biggest win in the lottery received a resident of Russia.

Nikolay Miroshnichenko from Yekaterinburg and Sergey Dorogov from St. Petersburg (1bn rubles)

Lottery "Stoloto" brought a gift to two men at the same time. On New Year's Eve 2019 jackpot drawing of 1 billion rubles was made, it was shared by two lucky men.

The first was Nikolay Miroshnichenko, a driver from Yekaterinburg, who told of his family's tradition of buying tickets on New Year's Eve and waiting for a miracle. They didn't watch the 1264 circulation, because they simply forgot.

lottery

N. Miroshnichenko and his wife came for the prize

The second lucky man was a locksmith from St. Petersburg Sergey Dorogov. He came to Moscow for the prize with his wife, checkroom attendant. By December 31, they bought 10 tickets at once and dreamed of winning a house. Now they can make their dreams come true.

Natalia Vlasova from Voronezh (506 million rubles)

At the end of 2017, on the eve of the New Year holidays, the country was shaken by the news that "Russian Lotto" played the jackpot, and it was won by a resident of Voronezh region. The woman could not be found for a long time, and then people began to reach out to her with requests for money.

win a million

Natalia Vlasova from the Voronezh Region

Natalia Vlasova is a pensioner; before she had a chance to become a millionaire, she was trading to bring extra income to her family. Income tax will be deducted from the final amount, and the rest will be transferred in several sums.

Asmik Reufovna from Sochi (365 million rubles)

A resident of Sochi purchased a lottery ticket "Gosloto "6 of 45" and on May 21, 2017 fate gave her a gift of three hundred million. At the same time, the organizers said that the woman would be able to get the prize at the main office in Moscow. She had to collect money for the trip to the capital, since her family lives poorly.

Asmik Reufovna is a cultural worker. It is surprising that along with the news about the huge amount of winnings, it was told that she wanted to donate part of the amount to the CPRF.

In Europe.

The main problem for everyone who is lucky is the excessive attention from neighbors and crooks. Poor people become popular in a flash and begin to suffer from it. Let's tell you how things are in Europe.

Euromillion Lottery (190 million euros)

Launched in 2004, the Euromillion lottery instantly became popular. It's noteworthy that worldwide demand for tickets increases in times of crisis. The rules are very simple: you must choose 5 of 50 standard numbers and 2 of 12 lucky numbers. Drawing takes place 2 times a week.

lottery ticket

The principle of drawing is the same all over the world. A person has to wait for the results at home

The jackpot prize fund is 32% of the total amount. In Europe, tickets are available for residents of the UK, France, Andorra, Spain, Austria and other countries. The biggest lottery win in the history of Europe went to an anonymous person from Spain in 2017. He purchased a ticket in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and wished to remain anonymous. Earlier this year, a resident of the county of Dublin was lucky, he received 175 million euros.

Conclusions

  1. The biggest prize in lottery ticket sales history went to three U.S. residents at once, who received half a billion dollars each from the popular "Powerball." The largest amount in the United States and in the world, given out in one hand as prizes, was in the "Megamillions" lottery, it is 640000000$.
  2. The biggest lottery winnings in Russia are half a billion rubles. According to statistics, the prizes went to poor people from the provinces.
  3. The largest jackpot in Europe was drawn in October 2017. An anonymous person from Spain was lucky. Those who do not like to wait, you can try the instant type of game, in which the prize is won at the place of purchase of the ticket.
4 years back  

Long-livers of the planet: the oldest man in the world

The average life expectancy of a person in the world statistics is about 70 years. Everyone who has reached this age will say that this is very little. But there are long-livers on the planet, whose age has passed the mark of 100 years.

Let's talk about the oldest man on earth and find out how he managed to live to such an advanced age.

The world's greatest age of man

Each of us wants to know the secret of longevity and preservation of health. In every country there are people who live exceptionally long. About them are composed legends, myths, but not all of the stories are true. In the study of human life expectancy there is one difficulty: to document the dates of birth and death.

Wherever possible, geneticists and physicians are researching individuals whose age is considered abnormal. Consider world-famous individuals whose life expectancy is admirable.

Jeanne Louise Kalman (122 years and 164 days)

Frenchwoman Jeanne, who was born in February 1875 in the town of Arles, grew up as an ordinary child. Her family had 4 children, two of whom died while still children. Surprisingly, Jeanne's older brother was a long-liver and lived to 97 years.

Jeanne Kalman

The woman who lived the longest life in the world

By marrying a distant relative who owned his own store, the woman was able to earn her own bread. Her life was simple and busy: sports, concerts and operas, raising her daughter. Jeanne Louise outlived her daughter and husband and in 1942 she was left alone. To survive the death of her relatives, she raised her grandchild, but he died in a car accident 20 years later.

At some point, it turned out that Jeanne Kalman had nothing to live on, and then the 90-year-old lady signed a special agreement with the lawyer F. Raffre, under which he would support her in exchange for an apartment. The market price of the property corresponded to 10 years of payments, but the lawyer died before Jeanne passed away, and she lived three times longer, continuing to receive money from his family.

Jeanne Kalman is the oldest person in history whose age has been documented. She passed away in a nursing home after feeling she was too old. At 113, she was awarded the title of the oldest person on Earth.

Kalman's life is an exception to the rule. Note that she smoked for 97 years of her life and gave up the addiction only after she was unable to smoke on her own due to vision loss.

Jiroemon Kimura (116 years and 54 days)

In the top 16 places are occupied by women. It so happens that men die earlier than the stronger sex. 17th line of the list rightfully belongs to the Japanese Jiroemon Kimura. He is the oldest man on the planet. His age is reliably studied.

Born in 1897 in the town of Kamiyukawa, he worked all his life in the post office, then retired and grew flowers and vegetables in the garden until he was 90. He shared the secret of his longevity with journalists, saying that he always tried to eat in moderation and lead a healthy lifestyle.

The oldest person

Jiroemon Kimura on his 116th birthday

The Japanese was philosophical about life: his hearing and eyesight as well as his legs often failed him, but he wished to live as long as he was destined to live. He and his wife had 7 children, Jiroemon raised 14 grandchildren, saw 25 great-grandchildren and 13 great-great-grandchildren during his lifetime. He passed away in 2013.

A number of sources tell of another Japanese man, Shigechio Izumi, who lived 120 years and 237 days. In Japan itself, the record was not held for him because he was believed to have used the birth certificate of his brother, who died at an early age, to establish his status.

The oldest man in Russia

Average life expectancy in Russia is not considered high. The health of residents is affected by: stress, air and soil pollution, poor nutrition, bad habits. The fight against alcohol and smoking is conducted at the government level, but the results are not so optimistic. According to statistics, the title of oldest person in Russia is given mostly to women. They are awarded a certificate from the Book of Records. Let us find out who has the honorary status today.

Magomed Labazanov (122)

There are legends about the longevity of Caucasians, one of the long-livers of Russia - Grandfather Magomed. According to the data, he lived 122 years. Note that the age is not verified and is not recognized in the world, because the birth certificate was lost.

longtime resident

This is what Grandpa Mohammed looked like before he turned 120

According to Magomed Nasibovich, he was born in the Dagestan village of Gadiri in 1890 and worked in a sawmill. After the war his whole family was exiled to Kazakhstan, from where he returned decades later. For a long time he lived in Chechnya, and from there he moved to his native land.

He told his fellow villagers that he led a healthy and active life, ate food from his own garden, did not drink alcohol. He was loved and respected as a man. He passed away in 2012.

The world's oldest living man

Let's talk about the living long-livers of the planet and how old they are now. A number of citizens who have lived a long time are honored to have their names in the Guinness Book of World Records.

Kane Tanaka (age 116)

A resident of Japan, Kane Tanaka, lived to the age of 116, and today her record is recognized worldwide. She was born in Fukuoka Prefecture, where she has lived all her life. Today she cannot take care of herself, so she lives in a nursing home.

An interesting fact from the life of a long-lived woman: Born prematurely in 1903, Kane was fed on another woman's milk. She grew up in a poor family, and when she came of age she married Hideo Tanaka. Two sons were born to the marriage. The older son went to the front following his husband, where they both died. During the hungry years the woman had to sell rice cakes in order to survive.

old age

Kane Tanaka

Her youngest son wrote a book about his mother, where he said that her faith in God had helped her to survive to such an advanced age. Amazingly, doctors diagnosed Kane with colon cancer, and the disease was managed at an early stage. She traveled around Japan and visited the U.S. Her legs are very weak at her age, and she can only move around with the help of a walker.

Second place after Kane is Italy's Maria Giuseppa Robucci-Nargiso. In the town of Apricena, where the woman lives, her name is Nonna Peppa. She is only two months younger than the Japanese woman. Frenchwoman Lucille Randon is third in the list of verified long-livers. She is 115 years old, the woman has been involved in helping orphans and elderly people all her life.

Italian longevity

Maria Giuseppa Robucci-Nargiso

Conclusions

  1. Jeanne Louise Calman of France achieved the greatest age on the planet. The record is officially confirmed and is not disputed.
  2. The oldest person in Russia who died at the age of 122 years in Dagestan is Magomed Labazanov. This fact has not been documented and is not recognized by the world's gerontologists.
  3. The oldest person alive today is 116 years old, this Japanese Kane Tanaka.
4 years back  

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